Mount Merapi is an active volcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It is located approximately 28 kilo meters north of Yogyakarta, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1,700 metres above sea level. In the year of 2010, Mt. Merapi started erupting on 20 October and reached its peak on 5 November which caused hundreds of victims and destroyed everything within the radius of 10 km from the peak of Mt. Merapi. The death toll from Mt. Merapi disaster has reached up to 259 people, 511 people are being treated, with 365.089 refugee and 639 refugee camps. Several villages on the slopes of Mount Merapi have been utterly devastated by the volcano’s recent eruptions. One is Kepuharjo, near the Kali Gendol River, which has been almost completely destroyed by volcanic ash.
Residents around Merapi livelihood is farmers and ranchers, they have cattle that are kept around their homes. The population of cattle reached 396.198 head, consisting of 63,896 in Yogyakarta Province and 332,302 cattle in Central Java Province (Boyolali, Magelang and Klaten). At the time of Merapi’s eruption, some of the residents stayed at home which was categorized as a hazardous area only for the reason to give their livestock fodder. This is due to the lack of adequate stock of fodder for their livestock. Because of that, many people around Mt. Merapi which killed since the eruption of a volcano exposed while feeding their livestock. From that problem, idea of training on the manufacture of animal feed to farmers who are around Mt. Merapi aroused in purpose to help them to have a stock of cattle feed that can be stored for a long time (more than 1 year). So the death toll could be avoided in case of volcanic eruptions. In addition to the length of shelf life, silage also has many other advantages to livestock.
Silage is feed that has been preserved by fermentation in the process from raw materials in the form of forage crops, agricultural industry waste and other natural food ingredients, with a certain amount of water content and then inserted in a place that is hermetically sealed for about three weeks. The main purpose of making silage is to maximize the preservation of the nutrients contain that found in forage or other feed materials, so that can be stored in a long time, then it can be given as feed for livestock. It also can be a solution to overcome the difficulties in getting feed forage in the dry season. Material for making silage are all kinds of forage and other plant material from which preferred by ruminant livestock, such as: grass, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, corn cobs, corn cobs, sugarcane tops, pineapple stem and rice straw.